What is Fumaric Acid (E297) in Food? Uses, Safety, Side Effects


Fumaric acid (E297) is an organic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. People use it to treat pain, as a preservative in food, to help prevent cancer, and to treat skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema. Fumaric acid helps people who have damaged joints or weak bones.

What is fumaric acid?

Fumaric acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that belongs to the alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) family. It is produced by many plants, particularly in the genus Fumaria.Grade Chemical  It is also produced synthetically and used as a food additive, pharmaceutical ingredient, cosmetic ingredient, and chemical intermediate.

Fumaric acid was first isolated from fumaric acid esters found in beets and other plants.

It has been used for centuries as a food preservative and flavoring agent; it has also been used as a pharmaceutical ingredient to treat conditions such as psoriasis.

Fumaric acid has been shown to improve skin elasticity and reduce fine lines and wrinkles.

What are the natural Sources of fumaric acid?

Fumaric acid is a natural acid found in many fruits and ve Anbu Chemgetables. It is used as a preservative and flavouring agent, and is also used in the food industry as an emulsifier. Fumaric acid can be obtained from the fruit of several species of fumitory shrub.

Fumaric acid is an organic compound that occurs naturally in many foods, such as apples, almonds, tomatoes, potatoes, grapes and carrots. Fumaric acid is also used as a food additive to provide tartness to foods such as potato chips or soft drinks.

How is fumaric acid made?

The isomerization of maleic acid or glucose fermentation can produce fumaric acid. Two manufacturing processes are described below:

1. Isomerization of Maleic Acid

In this process, maleic acid is heated under pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst. This causes a rearrangement of the carbon atoms in maleic acid, resulting in the formation of a new compound called cis-butenedioic acid. The cis-butenedioic acid can then undergo hydrolysis to give fumaric acid.

2. Sugar fermentation

Fermentation is a technique used to produce organic acids from sugars by using microorganisms such as yeast or bacteria. Fumaric acid can be produced by fermenting sugar under aerobic conditions with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria.


The substance is a white or nearly white crystalline powder or granular powder with a persistent sourness and dryness. The sourness is around 1.5 times that of citric acid.


Since fumaric acid contains two carboxylic acid functional groups, it has two PKa values. These values are PKa1 = 3.03 and PKa2 = 4.44. The PKa1 and PKa2 values of fumaric acid are higher than those of citrate acid and malic acid.


Fumaric acid is an unsaturated di-carbonic acid that has 2 dissociation equilibrium equations. A concentration of 100 mM (0.1 mol/L) results in a PH value of 2.03.

How to calculate the pH value of fumaric acid?

The pH of fumaric acid is 3.2 to 4.4.

If you want to calculate the pH value of a solution, you must know the concentration of fumaric acid in that solution. In other words, if you have 100 grams of fumaric acid and you want to know its pH value, then you will have to divide the result by 100 grams and multiply it by 10(-2) (or divide it by 100 and multiply it by 10(-2)).

The following example will show you how to calculate the pH value of a solution containing 0.1 grams of fumaric acid:

Solution A: 0.1 g/100 mL = 0.0001 g/mL = 0.1 mmol/L = 1 mmol/L;

Solution B: 1 mmol/L * (10^-2) = 1 x 10^-3 moles per liter;

Solution C: 1 x 10^-3 mol * (6 x 10^-24 kg) / (1 x 10^-3 L) = 6 x 10^21 kg/L;

Solution D: 6 x 10^21 kg / L * (10 moles per kg) / (1000 mL) = 60 mole per 1000 mL.


In water

Citric, malic, and tartaric acids are all very soluble in water, with a solubility of 0.5% (0.5g/100ml) at 20°C.

As fumaric acid is hydrophobic, it can disrupt microbial activity by interacting with lipid materials on microbial cell walls.

In organic solvents

Alcoholically soluble, slightly soluble in oils. It is slightly soluble in acetone with a solubility of 1.29g/100g at 20°C.

What are the benefits of fumaric acid?

Fumaric acid is a white, crystalline powder that is used as a food additive and as a medicine. It is also used in the production of polyester resins and some other chemicals.

Because fumaric acid is an organic acid, it can be found in many fruits and vegetables as well as some dairy products.

Fumaric acid has been shown to have several therapeutic uses. It can be used to treat gout, eczema, psoriasis, and other skin conditions when applied topically or taken orally as a solution or capsule. It may also help reduce inflammation and pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).